Paul Manship’s bronze gilded statue of Prometheus bringing fire to mankind, features prominently in the sunken plaza at the front of 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City. The inscription from Aeschylus, on the granite wall behind, reads: “Prometheus, teacher in every art, brought the fire that hath proved to mortals a means to mighty ends.”
If you look carefully, you will see that Prometheus in this statue emerges from the circle of the Zodiac which represents Chronos, the personification of time in Greek mythology. In Aeschylus’ story the relationship between Chronos and Prometheus is a complicated one. I don’t think the artist was depicting that relationship. I believe Paul Manship had a remarkable insight into the nature of time itself.
As observed in nature, there is an arrow of time. We don’t get younger, we get older. There is also a cyclic aspect. I hope you get a chance to read the Review of the Concept of Time in Physics. I mentioned the other aspects of time in that article.
The cyclic aspect of time is usually symbolized by a circle. In Paul Manship’s statue the cyclic aspect is symbolized by the Zodiac circle and the arrow aspect is symbolized by the figure of Prometheus. So, I think this statue is a meditation on the nature of time.
My conception of time is a variation on this. Time is emergent. Space, time and matter emerge from the primordial field simultaneously and they are inter-dependent on each other.
The primordial field is also known as the primordial fabric of the universe. In Eastern philosophy the primordial fabric is known as citta which means mind stuff. The mind stuff is a condensed form of Consciousness which is the ultimate reality. Mind stuff (citta) is subtler than the space-time-matter but denser than the higher-mental and spiritual realms of the Cosmos. Primordial fabric precedes space-time-matter in the creation order.
Another claim I make is that space and time are not continuous. We know that matter is quantized (not continuous). Matter consists of elementary particles. If space, time and matter are inter-dependent (unified) then space and time must be quantized as well. Other physicists are thinking along same lines.
While at it, let me make even bolder statements
- Particle spin and electric charge are connected.
- Electric charge and time are simultaneous manifestations of a more fundamental process.
- Therefore, particle spin and time are deeply connected.
- Zero-chirality state effectively eliminates the time effect.
I will briefly explain the conceptual basis of these claims below.
Spacetime of General Relativity Theory
Einstein’s theory of relativity which has been experimentally verified unifies space and time and calls that entity spacetime but it cannot unify spacetime with matter. In that theory matter is a separate reality and it distorts spacetime causing gravitation.
Einstein’s theory has been enormously successful. Before Einstein’s theory we had Newton’s theory of gravitation. It was not challenged for three centuries. Newton’s theory is still valid within certain limits. Einstein’s theory has been around for almost a century now. He finished his formulation in 1915. New theories of spacetime and gravitation have appeared on the horizon. There are several new candidates to replace Einstein’s theory.
Fundamental Interaction (Symmetry Breaking)
Fundamental interaction can be visualized as a twisting action. The consequence is the appearance of curvature on the primordial fabric. Let’s visualize it as a twist on a thread of the primordial fabric. I repeat, this is only one of many visualizations but this particular visualization turns out to have remarkable explanatory and predictive power.
Fundamental interaction breaks the perfect symmetry which can be visualized as a straight line. Why is there a perfect symmetry in the beginning? Why is there a fundamental interaction? These are very important questions but cannot be answered in the context of physics which is focused on what happens after the symmetry is broken.
Consequences of the Fundamental Interaction
We’ll talk about the consequences of the closed-loop formation a little later. As a result of the twisting action (symmetry breaking) the perfect symmetry is broken and a multitude of curved forms of the fundamental thread are possible. Let us consider the simplest form shown in Figure 1. Note the 2 semi-circles and the flow direction as indicated by the arrows. The primordial flow shown by the arrows is intrinsic.
The clockwise primordial flow forms a “virtual-center” indicated by the red dot in Figure 1. Similarly, the counter-clockwise primordial flow forms another “virtual-center” indicated by the blue dot. We call these centers virtual to differentiate them from the centers of closed-loops.
Orthogonal manifestation flow
When a center is formed an othogonal flow (emanation) emerges from the center. I prefer to call the center as ‘subjectivation center’ and the manifestation flow as ‘objectivation.’ Subjectivation is always followed by objectivation. I described this fundamental principle in various articles. Please refer to “Definitions and Summary of Soul Monism” for a comprehensive summary.
The first objectivation from the virtual-center is the virtual-time. We differentiate the ‘virtual-time’ from the ‘real-time’ which emerges from a closed-loop. The virtual-time is relevant in the explanation of the properties of bosons.
The second objectivation from the virtual-center is the virtual-charge. We will see later that the electric charge forms when the loop is closed. When the loop is open but twisted the electric charge is virtual. Virtual quantities become “real” when the primordial flow forms closed loops.
Colors of the red and blue dots in Figure 1 indicate the directions of virtual-time. Red dot indicates negative charge experiencing forward-virtual-time and the blue dot indicates positive charge experiencing backward-virtual-time. The resultant of these opposing virtual-charges and virtual-times is a photon (quantum of electromagnetic wave).
The speed of light (photons) in empty space is constant whether the photons are emitted from a rocket moving at light speed or from a slow moving train or whether the light is in visible, infrared, x-ray or gamma-ray frequencies. This counter-intuitive law of nature was well established experimentally at the beginning of the 20′th century. Einstein investigated the consequences and discovered even stranger facts. All bosons (force-carrying quanta) such as photons exist for the facilitation of interactions. Physicists routinely use the concept of “virtual” as in “virtual photon” or “virtual boson” but they overlook the fact that the primary cause of this behavior is the “virtual-time”.
The primordial field is magnetic-field-like. When fundamental interaction (symmetry breaking) results in the formation of closed loops of a primordial thread, an orthogonal electric-field-like flux will emerge. This electric-field-like flux creates the real-time and the real-charge. Since the symmetry breaking starts with the twisting of a primordial thread the closed-loops can only form in pairs. Two semi-circles of the twisted thread form 2 closed loops when the twisting (symmetry breaking) is energetic enough.
The red symbolic triangle in the left-handed closed loop is the electron, the blue symbolic triangle in the right-handed closed loop is the positron. The symbolic triangle of Figure 2 is actually a special type of tetrahedron called Roman Surface. I talked about the significance of this special tetrahedron in the paper titled “Golden Biquaternions, 3 Generations, and Spin“
Neutrinos are primordial threads in helical but unclosed form. The helix manifests the spin but the charge remains virtual. This is why neutrinos are neutral. The helical threads have handedness because of the intrinsic flow in the primordial thread, therefore they exhibit spin (1/2).
The helical formation of the primordial thread is different from the photon formation shown in Figure 1. In the photon formation (Figure 1) the clockwise and anticlockwise flows create opposing virtual-charges and therefore opposing virtual-times. In the helical formation (neutrino formation) there is only one virtual-charge.
Right-handed neutrinos have never been observed. Neutrino is electron with helical (unclosed) thread. Electron is left-handed This is why right-handed neutrinos have never been observed.
There are right-handed helical formations. They are the anti-neutrinos.
The so called weak-force in physics is not really a force. Weak-force is a “transforming interaction”, it converts neutrinos into electrons or electrons into neutrinos. In the conceptual model I am describing here the weak-force loses some of its mystery. With the conceptual model it is easier to see how the helix can collapse into a circle and how circle can turn into a helix. The so called weak-force may be just a change of the vantage point, a change of the perspective. New insights can be developed from this conceptual model.
Denser forms of matter emerge when more twisting results in knots of the primordial fabric.
Space is due to pair creation. Equivalently, space emerges from the spin-1/2 particles. Space emerges when virtual-charge and virtual-time transform into real-charge and real-time in pair creation.
Higgs bosons are zero-chirality formations of the primordial threads. The center regions of these formations look very much like the fundamental twist shown in Figure 1. In that respect, each Higgs boson contains a photon in the center. This formation does not act like photon, however. The circular flows surrounding this center effectively create zero-handedness (zero chirality). This means the virtual-charges and virtual-times effectively cancel each other. In the photon formation of Figure 1 the virtual-charges and virtual-times oppose but do not cancel each other. In the electron/positron formation (closed loops) the charge and time is fully manifested. In the helical formation of neutrino the virtual-charge and virtual-time are not opposed. In the Higgs Boson formation virtual-charges and virtual-times oppose and cancel each other.
The zero-chirality formation effectively eliminates the “time-effect”. This is the basis of non-local behavior in quantum physics.
The word “boson” in Higgs Boson is a misnomer. Bosons by definition have spin=1 but the Higgs Boson has spin=0. Higgs Boson is special because all other particles have spin 1/2 or higher. The spin=0 is very special. This makes Higgs Boson a very special particle.
The visual model I am presenting here explains a lot. Opposing flows (red and blue indicating flows in the opposite direction) effectively create the spin=0 (zero-chirality) state.
The primordial field and its intrinsic flows permeate the universe. The zero-chirality formations (Higgs particles) similarly exist everywhere in the universe. These zero-chirality formations are the essential parts of the universal background. When other particles (with spin=1/2 and higher) go through this universal background they interact with the flows of the zero-chirality formations. This interaction can be thought of as viscosity or inertia. This inertia gives rise to “particle mass.”
If the primordial fabric consists of zero-chirality formations like the one shown in Figure 6. then we can say that the fundamental interaction (the primordial twist, the symmetry breaking) is built-in from the beginning.
Helix closed on itself is the magnetic monopole. The effective electric field in the center of the helix forms an effective closed loop. An orthogonal magnetic flux will start as soon as the effective electric-field-loop is closed. This kind of formation requires extremely violent interaction. This is why it must be rare in our universe. Indeed, magnetic monopoles have not been observed yet. Every theoretical physicist thinks magnetic monopoles must exist because their existence will make Maxwell equations symmetric.