I am reading “The Infinity Puzzle” by Frank Close. This is a well written book. I am familiar with the physics and the historical and social context behind the theories mentioned in this book but I was surprised to find so much new historical information in this book.
Frank Close reminded me one of the facts of nature. I underlined the text every time I saw these statements:
“Massless particles with electric charge do not exist”
“There are no massless electrically charged particles in nature”
“Nature had no such thing as massless electrically charged particles”
Only photons and gluons are massless and they have zero electric charge. Gluons have a color charge but not an electric charge.
I updated the following post because this fact belongs in the master list
At this point, I am sure you will ask: “what does massless mean?” The “mass” here refers to the “rest mass” which is the old terminology. When physicists say “mass” they mean the “rest mass” which is an invariant quantity. The “mass” does not change as you accelerate the particle. The terminology of “rest mass” and “relativistic mass” are no longer used. When you accelerate the particle the energy of the particle increases but the “mass” is constant.
Physicists know how to measure the mass but they don’t understand it. There are many other quantities like that. We know how to measure the electric charge and the particle spin but we don’t understand those quantities either. The “problem of mass” is one of the great mysteries in physics. Matt Strassler has done a great service by developing many articles and lectures to explain the concept of mass to the general public. If you are interested in this subject you should start from his article “Mass-ive Source of Confusion.”
Physicists do not argue with nature. They accept whatever nature gives, but at the same time, they want to know how everything fits together. All my research (both in physics and intuitional science) led me to this hypothesis: electric charge, ‘time effect’ and mass emerge simultaneously when the ‘primordial thread’ is twisted into a closed loop. The manifestation of the electric charge and mass as well as the ‘time effect’ is related to the closure of the ‘primordial thread.’ This picture explains the non-existence of electric charge in massless particles naturally. If the thread is not closed the mass is not manifested, the electric charge is not manifested either.
Conceptually, the ‘primordial thread’ is somewhere between a “field” and a “string/filament.” I will have a mathematical theory based on this hypothesis some day.