Category Archives: geophysics

Update on how Earth’s magnetic field is changing

The European Space Agency (ESA) has a trio of satellites known as SWARM that studies Earth’s magnetic field. “Launched in 2013, the trio of Swarm satellites are measuring and untangling the different magnetic fields that stem from Earth’s core, mantle, … Continue reading

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European Space Agency’s Magnetic Field Mission SWARM

Image credit: ESA/ATG Medialab European Space Agency (ESA) has 3 satellites that work in a coordinated fashion to measure Earth’s changing magnetic field. Here’s the description from ESA “Swarm, a constellation of three satellites, studies Earth’s magnetic field. Swarm aims … Continue reading

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image credit I feel so ashamed for not knowing much about al-Biruni – the polymath who lived in the 11’th century. His name was brought to my attention by a newspaper article announcing the establishment of a new private university … Continue reading

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Moon stabilizes Earth

Image credit Earth’s moon is relatively large. This is unique for large planets in our solar system. Mercury and Venus have no moons, and Mars has only two small asteroid-sized objects (Phobos and Deimos) orbiting it. Uranus has 27 known … Continue reading

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Recent changes in Earth’s magnetic field

Image credit According to geologic record in the minerals, Earth’s magnetic dipole polarity reversed many times during the planet’s 4.5 billion year history. The average time between reversals is 250 thousand years.  There were no reversals in the last 780 … Continue reading

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Huge amount of water in Earth’s mantle

Evidence [1][2][3][4] is growing for the theory [5] that claims that the amount of water in Earth’s “transition zone” (see the graphics above) is as much as the water contained in all oceans. Why is this important? More water in … Continue reading

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Difference between sidereal day and solar day on Earth

An Earth day can be measured in different ways. Measure the time it takes for a complete rotation of Earth around its axis. Measure the time it takes for the Sun to appear in the same meridian in the sky. … Continue reading

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Live map of the winds across the Earth

The live map of the winds across the Earth Once the image comes up you can rotate the Earth image using your mouse (click on the image and move the mouse while pressing the mouse button) and see the green … Continue reading

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If all the polar ice melted

The super typhoon Haiyan devastated Philippines. I experienced the super storm Sandy in the NYC area. During Sandy the sea level rose 12 ft (approximately 4 meters). During Haiyan the sea level rose 16 ft (approximately 5 meters). 12 ft … Continue reading

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Life on Earth critically depends on the magnetic field

Life on Earth critically depends on Earth’s magnetic field. We should know more about it and the dynamo that generates it. Compasses point to the magnetic north pole. Birds follow the magnetic field lines during their seasonal migrations. Earth’s magnetic … Continue reading

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Rapid Climate Change 11.5 Thousand Years Ago

Introduction Human pre-history is shaped by climate changes, genetic mutations, development of ego-consciousness, development of languages and the specific eras such as the “Great Leap Forward” (Homo Sapiens moving out of Africa) and the transition from hunting and gathering to “food … Continue reading

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Past and Future Pole Shifts

Introduction Pole Shift is a controversial subject and is debated passionately. During these discussions people tend to forget the basic physics, the law of the conservation of angular momentum which dictates that the average axial tilt angle with respect to … Continue reading

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